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Guide to K1 Kayak with Olympic Champion Marcus Walz | Gillette World Sport


Kayak canoeing is a very technical sport. You have to combine technique with strength,
with resistance, with good, strong mentality. You’ve got these people with you there competing
against you, so you have to be a very competitive person; and at the same time sort of calm,
you know – just think of your race, do your race. So when you’re competing, there’s a few
rules you have to respect which are the length of the kayak, which is 5.2 metres; and then
the weight of the kayak is very important – it has to be a minimum of 12 kilos Then the length of the paddle, there are no
rules about that. You just have to find the most comfortable
length of a paddle. Precision is very important in our sport,
because as I said before it’s a very technical sport, and we have to be perfect in all those
details. Just a single movement can make us lose speed
or lose those few centimetres that are gonna make us lose that race or win it, so we have
to be very careful with every single detail. Mastering the K1 requires a lot of dedication
both on and off the water; and isn’t limited to simply training in one canoe over one distance. My training at this level, it’s a high level,
so we have to be very professional and take care of every single detail, you know, to
get the best out of every single training. We usually start the season with lots of kilometres,
maybe an hour and a half or two hours in the kayak nonstop. And then as we approach the competitions,
we get a bit more specific and have a bit more quality training as we call it – a
bit more strength and explosive training. While we paddle, we combine resistance with
strength; so apart from the training on the water, we also do quite a lot of gym. The beginning of the season, we do quite a
lot of resistance in the gym, and then – while we get nearer to the competitions then we
do lot of strength and explosive training in the gym. I’d say that the most important muscles
for a kayaker – it starts from the top half of the body, it would be chest, abs, arms,
and our back. But I have to say we also use our legs because
when we’re sitting down in the kayak we also like to push with our legs and use all
the muscles of our body. Apart from the K1, which is actually the most
important because it shows what level you’ve got individually, we also train lots of days
in the K2 or the K4, because when we go to international competitions then of course
we get together and try to get the best K2 or K4 of our country. Of course in the K2 or the K4 you’re with
other people in the kayak and you have to respect their technique and their way of paddling. So you have to get together and make it look
like just one person. You push together in the water, or make your
legs go at the same rhythm. And, well, just move together. Kayaking is a sport where you practice and
compete on the water; and while it doesn’t really matter if it’s salt water or if it’s
a lake or a river, but it’s always better if it’s still water. Here in Madrid where I train, we’re quite
lucky because we’ve got a beautiful place and the views are the greatest, so apart from
the training and the suffering we do every day then we also enjoy our landscape. The Olympic Gold medal for a sportsman is
like the best. There’s nothing better than going to an
Olympics, and there’s nothing better than winning a gold medal. There’s nothing better than that. So it’s great for me to think now that I’ve
touched the sky, and now when I go out to compete I’ll be loads more confident. I’m already competing, I’ve already done
the best I can do, so I just think now what I’m gonna try and do is just fight for the
next Olympic Games which will be in Tokyo in 2020, and just try and repeat with an Olympic
Gold Medal in the K1 1000 metres.

Ecological Succession: Nature’s Great Grit

November 27, 2019 | Articles, Blog | 100 Comments

Ecological Succession: Nature’s Great Grit


Captioning is on! To turn off, click the CC button at bottom right. Follow the amoebas on Twitter (@amoebasisters) and Facebook! We love Disney movies and we have to say—Lion
King is one of our favorites. And like a lot of Disney movies, it has a happy ending. We’re
not going to give spoilers just in case you are one of the few people left in the world
that hasn’t seen the Lion King— go see it —but at the end of Lion King, you start
to see all this life growing back. The sun comes out and all these plants start growing.
Happy music plays. The animals that had disappeared start to come back! I never really understood
where they went but…they come back! And being a biology teacher, everything is
destined to have a biology reference. So here’s what it reminds me of: ecological succession.
Although, the movie is kind of like ultra fast impossible ecological succession. It’s
not that fast in real life. Most dictionaries define succession as the
following of one person or thing after another in an order or sequence. Well ecological succession
is that but in terms of ecology. Ecological succession is a process—over time— of
organisms in an ecological community. What’s a community? Well in ecology, we have different levels
of organization. We have a living organism as our first level. A hippo for example. Then
we have a population, which is when you have the same species of an organism in a given
area. For example, a population of hippos. Same species so that’s one population. Then
we have a community. A community includes many populations living together in a particular
area. So now we have hippos, lions, giraffes, and don’t forget plants because those are
populations too. Trees and…shrubs. All of this together is a community. That’s where
we are going to focus for succession. There are more levels beyond the community level,
but this is our focus right now. There are two types of succession that we
will talk about. One is called primary succession. In primary succession, the area this is happening
in is brand new—well in the sense that you’re usually talking about an area that doesn’t
have any soil. So this usually has to be a special circumstance. An example could be
a volcano lava flow that now has left this new area with no soil present. Usually you
have a pioneer species, which is a name for the species that colonize first. It sounds
exciting…pioneer species in primary succession can be organisms like lichen. Who doesn’t
like lichen? Ha…if you are unsure about what lichen is…google it! It’s very likely
you’ve seen lichen before. Moss is another potential pioneer. After pioneer species colonize
the area, they slowly break down rock into smaller, more plant friendly substrate—and
over time, contributing more organic matter in newly formed soil which will support plants.
Small vascular plants like grasses and plants that you might consider “weeds” can come
in. Shrubs can follow. Then trees. Animals can move into the area. How long this takes
can vary…but it’s often hundreds of years before you get a climax community going.
And if you’re wondering—why this sequence? Why doesn’t it just stop with grass? Well,
keep in mind that as other plants come in…bigger plants…you are going to see more competition
for space and resources. Think about how it would be by the time trees come in! Trees
are going to block some of the light that small plants underneath them may be dependent
on. As new larger plant species come in, this competition brings about a new order. And
if you are wondering—where did these plants even come from? Well there are so many ways
that seeds can be dispersed—wind, water, animals. Check out our plant reproduction
video for more information about how these plants could have actually come into the area. Now for secondary succession. Similar to primary
succession, it follows a typical ecological sequence. With secondary succession—I like
to think second—because it’s like a “coming back again a second time.” What I mean by
that is usually you’re talking about an area that once had plants and animals and
a full ecological community going on. But then we had a disturbance…an ecological
disturbance…like a forest fire, a flood, a tornado. Actually it doesn’t have to be
a natural disaster—human activity can be involved with secondary succession. Regardless
of the type of event, in secondary succession, the soil is still there and that’s kind
of the big key point here, because your pioneer species will actually have soil to grow in.
That means your pioneer species in secondary succession will often be small plants as there
is already soil present. Secondary succession will then follow a similar sequence to primary
succession after that point. Since secondary succession involves soil already being available,
it is more likely to be a faster process than primary succession. An important thing to remember about ecological
succession is that it really shows the diversity of organisms—the sequence we had talked
about— in an ecological community over a period of time. Usually a long period of time.
Ecological succession, over time, can support an ecological community that continues to
increase in biodiversity. And, biodiversity is a beautiful thing. That’s it for the
amoeba sisters and we remind you to stay curious!

Whale-saving Crab Pot | Design Squad

November 26, 2019 | Articles, Blog | No Comments

Whale-saving Crab Pot | Design Squad


♪ ♪ NATE: I’m Nate
from Design Squad, and today I’m working
with Hannah. I am 11 years old and I love building
and making stuff. Today Nate and I are working on
an invention. NATE: Hannah and and I have
started talking about the problem
of whale entanglement. Lots of whales,
especially blue whales, humpback whales,
and gray whales, have been getting entangled
in the ropes of crab pots. Check it out. This is a
video from the Timmy Boy. It’s a crab fishing boat that
sails out of Newport, Oregon, which is where I grew up. Bob is a crab fisherman. This is how fishing crews
used pots to trap crabs at the bottom of the ocean. Lobsters are also trapped
this way. A rope runs from the float
to the crab pot. The float allows the crew to
find the crab pot and grab the rope. The problem is that the whales
can get tangled in the ropes. If we could get rid
of the ropes, whales would be much safer. I have a couple ideas. ♪ ♪ I’m thinking about
inventing something to hold the rope and float
under the water. The rope and float would be held
in place by a hook. After the crabs have
been trapped, the hook would let go
of the rope and the float, and then they would rise up to
the surface so the crab pot could be put
in the boat. With this idea, whales wouldn’t
get tangled in the ropes because the ropes and floats
would be held in place underwater by the hook
until they’re needed. Today we’re working
on a prototype. It’s like a rough draft to test the basic idea
for a whale-saving crab pot. So, show me
what you’ve done so far. Well, I realized that
my whale-saving crab pot will need to work underwater. So I found a food storage
container that’s watertight, and the hook needs to turn to
release the float. So inside the container,
I’m going to put a servo, which is a motor that can be
commanded to turn and stop at certain positions, a battery that will power
the servo, and a controller
that will control the servo by sending it commands. I’m also going to use a small
shaft that will turn the hook to release the rope and float. It will stick through the lid
of the container. I attached the shaft to
the servo with a special part that I designed and printed
on a 3D printer. I also designed and 3D printed
another special part to attach the servo to the lid
of the container. The next thing I needed
was some plastic to keep everything together,
and that’s where I’m at now. I have some safety glasses
for you to wear while we’re machining. These plastic pieces were cut
from a kitchen cutting board, which was rough,
but we need a smooth surface so that the parts will form
a watertight seal. To make the pieces smooth,
we’re using a milling machine. (machine whirring) This operation we’re doing
is called facing. We’re just making a nice level
flat surface. It’s definitely like mowing
your lawn because you’re
going back and forth. Vroom! NATE: Feel that surface,
let me know what you think. Smoother than earlier? – Yes.
– That’s what we want. So, what are we doing next? Well is squishing goopy stuff
on other things fun? – Yes!
– Okay, good. HANNAH: Oh, this is fun. The goop that we’re talking
about is a special glue. NATE: We should start
with these screws here. HANNAH: We’re gonna put
the cables and stuff inside and test it out in water. We want to make sure the flag
keeps spinning, showing us the electronics
are working. Okay, down you go. ♪ ♪ HANNAH: Yes!
NATE: It’s working! HANNAH: It’s working!
NATE: Oh, good. HANNAH: Yes! Nice job, partner. Our next step is to make
the release hook attached to our spinny mechanism. Right now, I am reproducing this
hook design in the computer so that I can 3D print it. I’ve got to put a couple
of holes through here. I’m hoping that you could drill
those holes with the mill. HANNAH: Yeah. (drill whirring) ♪ ♪ NATE: Awesome. Nice. We’re gonna give it
the directions using this programming language. Is it supposed to be plugged in? NATE: (laughs)
Maybe. ♪ ♪ NATE: There, okay, good. Yes! It works!
(Nate chuckles) Let’s take it
to the pool. – Yes! HANNAH: This bottle will act
as a float. I really hope this works. NATE: The rope and float are
being held in place by this hook that’s attached to the server. I’ve programmed the controller to turn the servo after a
minute, which will give me time to get
to the bottom of the pool. When the servo turns,
the hook will turn and it will release the
rope and float. (water burbling) (laughs)
We did it! It worked! Our invention worked. – I’m so glad it did.
– Me too. Next, I’m going to redesign this so it can be submerged in salt
water for a long time. And I’m going to add
a remote control so the fishing crew
can control when the hook releases the
rope and float. What do you think
of inventing stuff? I think it’s super fun.
I really love this. NATE: Should we do it again
sometime on another project? HANNAH: Definitely. In fact, you can invent stuff
without me around. You can come use tools,
you know what to do.

ESPN Sport Science Meets ALADDIN: The Genie Marathon


[music playing] In Disney’s hit musical,
Aladdin, actors on Broadway, on tour and in companies
around the world, bring down the house nightly, playing the role
of the fast talking, fun loving, Genie. Hello, everybody! But in addition to being world class
singers and dancers, to play this role, these actors also have to be
exceptional athletes. So to find out what it takes
to pull of this performance, ESPN’s Sports Science Team
was granted unprecedented access to a Genie on Broadway. Major Attaway. Now when you’re performing
“Friend Like Me”, talk to me about
how physically demanding it is. Well, it’s probably the best
cardio workout I’ve ever had. It feels like crossfit,
to be honest. Before a recent sold out show,
we wired up Major with a state of the art sensor
called the bioharness. This will help us analyze
his physical exertion by measuring
his respiratory rate, heart rate and movements
during the performance. Now in his dressing room
before the show, major averages
about 14 breaths per minute. And his heart rate sits
at about 73 beats per minute. But as he makes his way
backstage, our sensors show his heart rate and breathing rate
start to climb. Is your heart starting to race? Definitely, it’s definitely
starting to pump, it knows that we’re about
to do something big. Although he’s been
performing for years, the anticipation of being
in front of 1700 strangers still causes his body
to release adrenalin. This chemical increases oxygen
and blood flow to the muscles, and it might be why,
at this point, his breathing rate spikes by ten breaths per minute. And his heart rate reaches
155 beats per minute! But just moments before
he climbs into the tube that will lift him
up to the stage, he gets his nerves
under control, using what’s called
diaphragmatic breathing. This technique increases
blood flow back to the heart, and in under 60 seconds
it helps lower his heart rate by 30 beats per minute. Now Major and the other actors
who portray Genie make it look effortless, but every Genie will tell you
that this role is a workout. That’s a Broadway workout
right there. All told,
during “Friend Like Me”, our sensors tracked
nearly 900 steps! That translates to a distance
about the length of 23 NBA Basketball courts. Not surprisingly,
studies have shown average humans
have trouble talking when they’re exercising
at about 90% of their max heart rate. But incredibly… ♪ Here we go ♪ An expertly trained actor,
like Major can perform more than
half of “Friend Like Me” at over 92% of his max. ♪ Kick it in yeah ♪ And their average heart rate
can still be at more than 80% of their max. ♪ Don’t forget the style now ♪ That’s a greater
physical exertion than we’d expect to see… From a runner
during an actual marathon! ♪ Never had a friend like me
Yeah! ♪ Thank you so much
for all the access. -Thank you very much.
-You’re amazing! Come and get your wishes,
Agrabah! For ESPN’s Sports Science, backstage at Disney’s
Aladdin on Broadway! I’m John Brenkus.

Kid Engineer: Fashion Sun Shield | Design Squad


♪ ♪ SITA: I’m Sita. KRISHNA: I’m Krishna. And I am 11. And I’m 12. I’m her cousin. I’m her cousin. SITA: Krishna and I
are partners, and we created the heat shield. This product is for people who need to be protected
from the sun, and for people who
get sunburn or heatstroke. People overheat a lot
or get heatstroke and our invention is trying to
solve that problem. This is NuVu,
and we do engineering. NuVu is an innovation school with classes and summer programs for kids who like to build
and invent. KRISHNA: We decided to create a heat protection. Shield from the sun. KRISHNA: We are concerned that
as the earth gets hotter from climate change, people will
need protection from the sun. So we want to invent something
that keeps people cooler. SITA: An invention is kind of
like a new product that someone like invented it to
make the world a better place. ♪ ♪ Right now we’re working
on our prototypes. A prototype is not
your final version. It’s almost like your first
basic version of it. Should we save some
for the actual product? It’s called Mylar. It’s like a reflective material. So we’re gonna use it by
sticking it to this cardboard. ♪ ♪ KRISHNA: Our invention started
with just the whole front cover covered in Mylar. Then our second prototype
was connecting solar panels, which you could pull up
and down with your finger, and it finally changed
to the belt, which is our final product that
we are going to execute. Our first prototypes only
covered a small area of the arm, and some of the kids
in our group suggested that we should protect a larger
central part of the body. So that’s when we designed
the belt idea. SITA: I think why
we keep changing it is because part of inventing
something is changing, like your first idea might not
be your best idea. You can still grow off
of that idea and create new things and new
additions to your product. The latest prototype
of our heat shield is a belt. KRISHNA: Mirrors will reflect
the sunlight away to help keep the person cooler. SITA: They will be attached
with hinges. KRISHNA: The angle
can change depending on where the sun is in the sky. SITA: There’s also
a cooling system. Rainwater will be collected
in a funnel, then stored in a plastic bottle. KRISHNA: The water will
circulate through a tube to help make the person cooler. SITA: That’s our heat shield. KRISHNA: And now I’m creating
these panels. This material is acrylic. The color is mirror
and we chose mirror because it can reflect the sun. I’m now making it into a panel that will be able to move back
and forth. So this is a servo. A servo is a motor
that we can control. It basically moves back
and forth at any speed. This is gonna push the panel up
and down. SITA: When the servo motor
comes on, the panel will start moving back
and forth, which will reflect the sunlight. KRISHNA: Depending where the sun
is at what time of day, it can adjust to that
to protect you from the sun so you don’t have
heat stroke or overheat. So right now I’m trying to find
a tube that will fit this. And this is for our project
so we can collect the water. The rainwater will go
into the funnel, go through this tube
and into the water bottle, which is kind of like
the reservoir. Under it is tubes that will go
out and around. The water will go
through these tubes to help cool the person wearing
the heat shield. So right now we’re gonna put
water at the very top, and see if it flows
all the way down. KRISHNA: If it leaks,
then we know that there’s a hole
or something inside it. Feel any water? SITA: It’s wet.
It’s getting on me. So there does seem to be a leak,
I think, to where the water bottle is. Yeah, it’s definitely there. Tomorrow you should see all
of the motors working, the panels going up and down, and this water bottle not
leaking at all. ♪ ♪ Okay. ♪ ♪ SITA: All the motors started
working and I’m really happy. We have a different bottle. It’s a little bit taller
and has a thicker plastic. So we’re doing another
water test because the last one kind
of leaked a little bit. No leaks. Yay, it works! ♪ ♪ KRISHNA: We’re going to take
the heat shield outside because that’s where
it’s meant to be. This is the kind of environment that the heat shield will be
used in. Very hot, and the sun rays
will be pointing at her. Because you can see that it’s
reflecting off. SITA: So the mirrors are moving
up and down. Those are reflecting the sun
from all different angles. I think inventing’s fun. It exercises your mind
in a different way. It’s also cool to, like, make
things with cool materials that you don’t necessarily have
at home. KRISHNA: I like being
an inventor because it could help people
who are really in need, but also, like, make our world
a better place ♪ ♪

Master of Applied Sport Science at Deakin

November 21, 2019 | Articles, Blog | No Comments

Master of Applied Sport Science at Deakin


I’m John Leyden, I’m the Academy Strength and conditioning coordinator here at Geelong Football Club I’m directly responsible for our Academy strength and conditioning. So our first two third year players. On a day-to-day basis, it’s implementing their training programs, so their football and their conditioning loads and then also what they’re doing in the gym. It’s important to get a Master’s in Applied Sports Science from Deakin, because of how competitive the environment is now so there’s a lot of people coming in, that want the jobs in high performance. To add the layer on top where you get a lot more learning, and a lot more practical application through the master’s program. It just holds you a little bit higher on the pecking order when trying to go to those roles that are the dream roles. Going through a sports science course there’s a few different paths that you can go down. There’s the high performance management side, which is a little bit more managing an overall program. There’s the research side, which is obviously performing research and adding to a program that way. Then there is strength and conditioning coaching which is the path that I went down. And then there’s performance analysis as well. All of these, the Deakin Applied Sports Science Masters currently ticks off. The Masters of Applied Sport Science is a really good options for people that are currently in the industry, it’s super flexible in terms of when you can get your study done, so that means that you can be out you can be active, you can be coaching, and whilst you’re doing that, you’re obviously getting some theoretical knowledge as well through the learning that you are doing through Masters. Because of the Geelong Football Club and the Deakin partnership, students get a real hands-on experience dealing with high performance athletes. It’s a unique experience that a lot of people don’t actually get the opportunity to do. So, by studying at Deakin, that’s something that you get really good experience with. Sport science is just going to continue to grow. I’ve seen it grow in the last seven years, since I’ve been in the environment. Every club that we talk to, they know how important its is. It’s just a part of the program that’s just really important. It makes you make good decisions when you’re dealing with the athletes on a day to day basis.

ЩΉӨ BЦIᄂƬ ƬΉΣ PYЯΛMIDƧ

November 20, 2019 | Articles, Blog | 100 Comments

ЩΉӨ BЦIᄂƬ ƬΉΣ PYЯΛMIDƧ


[PBS Intro] This episode is supported by 23 and Me A long time ago a guy built a tomb out of
rocks so he could live in it after he died and not be dead. His son was like “Hey that’s cool” so
he built one too.. Then his son was like “Me too” so he
made a third and they were all buried there. And that’s how we got this. The pyramids of Giza. How did people who hadn’t even invented
the wheel build these things, and… why? They’re so big! They’re so precise! They’re so directionally oriented! They’re so mysterrrrrrious. At first glance they really do look out-of-this
world. Thing is, the pyramids are much older than
you probably think. They were already ancient history to people
IN ancient history, which led to some pretty wild theories about how they came to be. But pyramid technology didn’t just show
up out of nowhere. It was the end product of centuries of scientific
and cultural evolution, of people… figuring it out. And it definitely wasn’t aliens. [OPEN] Early on, Egyptians buried their dead like
we do. The desert naturally mummified some corpses,
which influenced their religious beliefs: You need to preserve the body to reach the
afterlife, and when you get there you’ll need all your stuff. Rich people’s graves had nicer stuff, and
they needed to protect their afterlife investment. First with simple mounds, and later with mud
brick “eternal houses”. Then a king named Djoser was like “Why have
one little mud mastaba when I can have six stone mastabas in a stack?” so he stacked
six stone mastabas like a mastaba boss and the age of the pyramids had begun. This was literally the first time humans had
piled stone this high. Egyptians knew totally vertical walls got
less stable as they got taller, so Djoser’s architect stacked bricks at an incline and
let gravity do the work. Step pyramid achieved! Why pyramids and not other shapes? If you want to make a big pile of blocks,
a pyramid gets you the most stability for the least material. A third of the way up, you’ve already laid
two-thirds of your stone. Halfway, you’ve placed more than 80%. Next comes Sneferu, Mr. Pyramid. He built his own step pyramid, but then decided
he wanted a smooth one instead, so they started on a second. No one had ever built one of those before,
so they made some mistakes. For starters, they built it on sand, which
is soft, they laid blocks carelessly, and it was too steep, so halfway through they
changed the slope and ended up with this. Sneferu was like “you’re not burying me
in that”, so he ordered a third pyramid! Only this time they built a solid foundation,
laid the stones in horizontal rows, and precision cut the edges. Sneferu’s motto? If at first you don’t succeed, try again,
and then try again one more time. Sneferu had experimented his way to a blueprint
for building awesome pyramids The Great Pyramid at Giza, built by his son
Khufu, took that blueprint to the next level. Khufu’s pyramid remained the tallest structure
on Earth for almost 4000 years, until some church tower in the year 1311, which fell
down, so it was tallest again until this radio antenna was finished in 1889. Khufu’s son Khafre built his pyramid right
next to dad’s, and he didn’t stop innovating. Instead of leveling the entire 46,000 square
meter footprint, he built his pyramid over a natural stone mound and only leveled the
outer edge, which was less work, duh! It’s 3 meters shorter than his dad’s,
but this higher ground creates the illusion that Khafre’s pyramid is taller. Kids, amirite? But even these seemingly perfect pyramids
weren’t without mistakes. Khafre’s had a slight twist near the top
in order to make the edges line up evenly. What’s remarkable is Egypt’s biggest stone
pyramids were the product of just three human generations, but those were generations full
of trial and error. Pyramid building continued for nearly 700
years, and like any product, efficiency started to win out over quality. Precision-cut cores were replaced by rough-cut
blocks. Kings still wrapped their pyramids in fine
white limestone, but over the next thousand years that was removed by stone stealers and
rock robbers, leaving the cheaply-produced cores to collapse into rubble, which is probably
why you’ve never heard of them. Ironically, the kings were probably disappointed
by the whole afterlife thing, but the pyramids themselves have proven to be surprisingly
resilient. Ancient is not a synonym for stupid. The world’s first skyscrapers were tombs,
and just like our own buildings, they didn’t spring up out of nowhere, they were the product
of centuries of engineering trial and error. Go back 500 years and show someone a smartphone
and they’d probably think you were a wizard. But when we look back from the present at
the ideas and failures along the way, we see that it’s not magic at all! It’s science. And if you still think aliens did it, you’re
in de-Nile. You know, the river. Stay curious.

A Brief History of Sport

November 17, 2019 | Articles, Blog | 6 Comments

A Brief History of Sport


Competition is part of
what makes us human. We strive to be better,
stronger, faster. We set rules, invent sports,
arrange contests, and we yearn to win. Science and technology are tools
we use to improve our performance. But while carbon fibre tennis
rackets and aerodynamic bicycles might represent the
cutting edge today, sports and technology have been linked
since the very earliest Olympic games more than
2,000 years ago. To ensure fairness, they would
draw a line in the dirt. But to improve things and ensure
continuity, year on year, they cut two grooves
in a marble sill. You would stand on the sill
and put your toes in the groove before you started. It’s one of the earliest
examples of sports technology, and something you can
still see today at Olympia in Greece. Fast forward through history,
and we crash into the Industrial Revolution. And for the first time, the
average worker had a little bit of disposable income. But there were huge
numbers of them. And thanks to the new labour
laws, they also had the Saturday afternoon off. So what to do with that time? And the answer lies here in
Sheffield’s Kelham Island Industrial Museum and on the
fantastic shelves over there. So 19th century Sheffield was
a huge manufacturer of cutlery, of hand tools,
and of cannon shells. So at lunch time on a Saturday
afternoon, the whistle would go, and the workers would clock
out using the clocking machines over there. They would then go down the pub
for a couple of hours and then pass through those
turnstiles there into the football matches. And that’s why traditionally
football starts at 3 o’clock on a Saturday afternoon. The story is all there
on these shelves. [TRAIN WHISTLE] The concentration of people,
existence of leisure time, and availability of disposable
income were all required for the development of team
sports like football. And that situation arose through
the technology of the Industrial Revolution. The steam engine was a key
development that powered mass production. So when in 1827, Edward Budding
invented the lawn mower, steam power churned them
out by the thousands, so that a neat lawn was no longer
the preserve of the rich. And in 1843, Thomas Hancock
patented the vulcanization of rubber, so changing the rubber
ball from some obscure ancient Mesoamerican invention to a
mass produced play thing. So with flat lawns and a bouncy
rubber ball, lawn tennis was not far behind. When we consider the legacy of
the Industrial Revolution, we might imagine scenes
like this. But these mills and factories
drove not just technological change, but also changes
to society. And sports is an intimate
part of that. The Bessemer converter is a
symbol of large-scale steel manufacture. Much of that steel went into
Britain’s railways, and that changed the landscape forever. Suddenly, huge numbers
of people could travel long distances. And for sport, that
was a revelation. Football teams could travel to
away games, and fans could follow them. And whether there were crowds,
there is money. So in little more than
a generation. sports had gone from something
that few could afford to big business. Technology has driven sports
and, in turn, sports has driven technology. We built these huge cathedrals
to sports. And we filled them with
technologies to help improve our athletes’ performance. Timing is no longer done
mechanically, but we use fully-automated timing
systems. Telephoto lenses have
revolutionised the way the media covers our sport, as have
the high-speed digital cameras that have just
come on the market. Modern materials have profoundly
changed the nature of some of our sports. And now science is so important
to sports that my title is Professor of Sports
Engineering, something that couldn’t have happened a
mere two decades ago. These films are about the
next part of the story. They’re about how we use our
scientific understanding of sports to improve our athletes
and how it’s changed the nature of some of
those sports. We go to see how technology can
help a coach train their athletes more effectively– Oh, wow, I love that. –how we’re developing ways to
measure and understand a sport more deeply, but without
disturbing performance, and how we can model all the
elements of a sport to test the limits of the game and
safeguards its future. Ultimately, though, it’s about
how we keep that balance between progress
and tradition. Is it cheating? [STARTING GUN]